Thank you for sharing this article! It’s surprising that this was only written in 2020 given that I studied these same kinds of patterns of disparity in my college ethics courses in 2005 when comparing equitable treatment with equal treatment.
What I’m not finding in the article is mention or evidence of researchers being instructed to ignore biological differences between sexes when testing drugs. While anecdotal, I have a cardiologist friend who frequently complains about patients not being forthright on their medical forms and failing to disclose important sex-related information if it doesn’t conform to their gender identity. From what I understand, it seems to be irresponsible for the context of a full medical history to be ignored when prescribing a course of treatment or medication, but I’m admittedly not a medical professional either.